KAX (Rat & Hamster) (Ketamine HCl 60.6 mg/mL + Acepromazine Maleate 0.6 mg/mL + Xylazine HCl 6.67 mg/mL), Injectable Solution, 10mL
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- Product Type:
- Controlled Substance:
- Schedule CIII
Laboratory animals are sometimes used in experimental clinical studies such as pre-marketing of a drug or a medical-surgical device or in regenerative medicine and surgery. The anesthesia protocols influence the survival of laboratory animals and can also greatly affect the experimental data results. Effective and reliable anesthetic protocols and medications are therefore essential in experimental studies on animal models, since the data derived can profoundly affect the outcome of trials.
Rats and Hamsters in Biomedical Research
The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) has made invaluable contributions to every area of biomedical research. Laboratory rats of various bred-for-research strains are one of the most commonly used species for biomedical research, second only to mice. Rats have also been widely used to test drug efficacy and safety. Almost all human disease models have counterparts in the rat, and rats are often used to study behavior in psychology experiments, including addiction. Their brains are larger than those of mice, and the animals are less timid and more intelligent.
Like mice and rats, Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, also known as golden hamsters) are small rodents that are widely used as experimental animals in medical studies. There are approximately 18 species of wild hamsters; all species are nocturnal, hoard food and live in burrows. Some live relatively solitary lives and some are social. In the early 1900s, Syrian hamsters had been collected by explorers on a few occasions, but it remained a poorly understood animal until they became popular as pets in the mid-1900s. Hamsters display many features that resemble humans in physiology, such as diet reactivity, metabolism, and infection of pathogenic microorganisms.2
Given the scope of the use of these species in laboratory research and the ongoing refinement of anesthetic protocols for laboratory animals, sedation for hamsters and sedation for rats are important components of biomedical research.
KAX Injectable for Rats and Hamsters
KAX Injectable Anesthesia (Ketamine 60.6mg/ml / Acepromazine 0.6mg/ml / Xylazine 6.67mg/ml) was formulated by NexGen Pharmaceuticals specifically for use in the sedation of rats and hamsters in the laboratory setting.
Ketamine is a dissociative general anesthetic and NMDA-Receptor Antagonist, so it is adjunctively useful to control pain. Ketamine has been FDA-approved for use in humans, primates and cats, although it has been used extra-label in many other species. Ketamine is used to induce general anesthesia in many species and as a constant rate infusion to provide analgesia and decrease the amount of inhalant used to maintain a surgical plane of anesthesia. Ketamine can inhibit NMDA receptors in the CNS and can decrease the wind-up pain effect. There is increasing interest in using it to prevent exaggerated pain associated with surgery or chronic pain states in animals.
Acepromazine is a phenothiazine sedative and tranquilizer that is FDA-approved for use in dogs, cats, and horses. Labeled indications for dogs and cats include as an aid in controlling intractable animals and alleviating itching as a result of skin irritation, as an antiemetic to control vomiting associated with motion sickness, and as a preanesthetic agent.3,4
The primary desired effect for the use of acepromazine in veterinary medicine is its tranquilizing/sedating action. Additional pharmacologic actions of acepromazine include antiemetic, antispasmodic, and hypothermic actions.5
Acepromazine is the most commonly used representative of its class of drugs, although chlorpromazine and promazine are occasionally encountered. In sufficient doses, these agents produce sedation, and some degree of antiemetic, antihistaminic, and antispasmodic activity but provide no significant analgesia. Despite many years of use, little specific information is available concerning the pharmacology of phenothiazine derivatives in rodents.1 Acepromazine is frequently used in anesthetic cocktails, combined with ketamine, or with ketamine and xylazine, to prolong anesthesia and reduce the doses of ketamine required. Dose-dependent reduction of blood pressure results from vasodilatation, apparently mediated by blockade of peripheral α1-adrenoreceptors. Acepromazine alone is said to produce mild sedation in the rat at doses of 1.0 to 2.5 mg/kg, IM, IP, SC.5
Xylazine HCl is a non-narcotic compound that is commonly used as a sedative, analgesic, and as a muscle relaxant. Xylazine has a long-standing use in small animal practices, but it is also used in large animal and wildlife applications. In veterinary anesthesia, xylazine has often been used in combination with ketamine.
The sedative and analgesic activity of xylazine is related to central nervous system depression. Its muscle relaxant effect is based on inhibition of the intraneural transmission of impulses in the central nervous system.5 In terms of general pharmacology:
A sleeplike state, the depth of which is dose-dependent, is usually maintained for 1 to 2 hours, while analgesia lasts from 15 to 30 minutes. The centrally-acting muscle relaxant effect causes relaxation of the skeletal musculature, complementing sedation and analgesia.5
Where to buy KAX Injectable
KAX Injectable for rats and hamsters is available in the U.S. only through NexGen Pharmaceuticals. KAX Injectable (Ketamine 60.6mg/ml / Acepromazine 0.6mg/ml / Xylazine 6.67mg/ml) provides superior relaxation and recovery times when used for rat sedation, hamster sedation and other laboratory anesthesia applications involving rodents and small animals.
FOR RX ONLY: A valid prescription from a licensed veterinarian is required for dispensing this medication.
1Cicero, Luca et al. Anesthesia protocols in laboratory animals used for scientific purposes. Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis vol. 89,3 337-342. 8 Oct. 2018.
3PromAce Injectable [package insert]. In: Boehringer lngelheim Animal Health 2017.
4PromAce Tablets [package insert]. In: Boehringer lngelheim Animal Health 2017.
5Plumb’s Veterinary Drugs.