Tolazoline HCl 200 mg/mL, Injectable Solution, 30mL
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Tolazoline (tolazoline HCl) is part of the synthetic group of α-adrenergic blocking agents known as imidazoline derivatives. It reverses the analgesic effects of α-agonists. Tolazoline also antagonizes the effects of detomidine, speeds recovery and longer-lasting than atipamezole.1
Tolazoline is fast-acting (usually within 5 minutes of IV administration), but may not fully reverse the effects of sedation or heart rate/rhythm. Its duration of action is relatively short, sometimes requiring repeat doses.2 In horses that received detomidine and then tolazoline one hour later, tolazoline’s effect on detomidine-induced changes in chin-to-ground distance were minimal; detomidine-induced changes in heart rate and rhythm only persisted for 15 to 20 minutes.4
Following tolazoline doses of 4 mg/kg IV in horses, the average heart rate decreased beginning 2 minutes post-injection, with heart rate nadir at 45 minutes. No apparent effect on chin-to-ground distance was noted. Packed cell volume significantly increased in all horses throughout the times sampled, with the maximal change at 15 minutes. Serum glucose concentrations increased significantly in all horses at the first time point measured through 1.5 hours postinjection.5
A 2013 study investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of tolazoline when administered as a sole agent. Nine healthy adult horses were administered tolazoline (4 mg/kg IV) and blood samples were collected at time 0 and at various times up to 72 hours post drug administration. Plasma samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and resulting data was analyzed using compartmental analysis.6
The study found that systemic clearance, steady state volume of distribution and terminal elimination half-life were 0.820 ± 0.182 L/h/kg, 1.68 ± 0.379 L/kg and 2.69 ± 0.212 h, respectively. Tolazoline administration had no effect on chin to ground distance, but the heart rate decreased (relative to baseline) and the percentage of atrial–ventricular block increased in all horses within 2 min of administration. Packed cell volume and glucose concentrations were also increased throughout the sampling period.6
Where to buy Tolazoline
Tolazoline is available in the U.S. through pharmaceutical manufacturers and through veterinary custom compounding companies.
This product carries numerous potential drug interactions. Please consult your veterinarian prior to beginning any treatment regimen.
FOR RX ONLY: A valid prescription from a licensed veterinarian is required for dispensing this medication.
1Zeiler GE. A review of clinical approaches to antagonism of alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor agonists in the horse. Equine Veterinary Education. 2015;27(1):48-54.
4Knych HK, Stanley SD. Effects of three antagonists on selected pharmacodynamic effects of sublingually administered detomidine in the horse. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2014;41(1):36-47.
5Casbeer C, Knych HK. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of tolazoline following intravenous administration to horses. Vet J. 2013;196(3):504-509.
6Casbeera, H.C., Knychab, H.K. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of tolazoline following intravenous administration to horses. The Veterinary Journal, Volume 196, Issue 3, June 2013, Pages 504-509.