Enrofloxacin 150 mg/mL, Oral Suspension, 500mL
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Enrofloxacin 150 MG/ML Suspension
Bacterial disease occurs when a horse’s immune system cannot sufficiently combat bacteria and it becomes able to replicate and spread in the horse’s body, generally due to the immune system being compromised or the introduction of a high bacterial load. There are several bacterial pathogens that frequently cause disease in horses (i.e., Tetanus, Potomac Horse Fever, Salmonella, Strangles and E. Coli); others occur much more rarely.
In horses, endometritis is often called an “invisible” disease because it often goes undiagnosed until it has significantly progressed. Endometritis affects the endometrium (uterine lining) of a mare's uterus, causing it to become inflamed and making it an inhospitable environment for sperm and embryos alike. A major cause of infertility in horses, endometritis affects up to 15% of broodmares, but because it lacks clear clinical signs, it is often overlooked until it has caused significant damage.
The “Invisible” Disease
Many mares who cycle but repeatedly fail to conceive are often found to have infections in their reproductive tracts. These are sometimes referred to as “dirty” mares. In nearly all cases, this will be the result of endometritis.2 The reduced fertility associated with endometritis has been recognized for many years, and is due to the resulting unsuitable environment within the uterus for the developing conceptus. In some cases the endometritis causes early regression of the corpus luteum. This syndrome usually occurs as a result of microbial infection, but it also can be due to non-infectious causes.
There are several classifications for equine endometritis:
Endometrosis (chronic degenerative endometritis)
Chronic infectious endometritis
Mating-induced endometritis (delay in uterine clearance)
The uterus of the mare is generally well-protected in the physical sense. However, contaminants can still enter the uterus during mating or artificial insemination, as well as during estrus or veterinary procedures.1 The uterine lumen of the normal fertile mare is sterile despite the fact that the reproductive tract is contaminated with bacteria from the act of breeding, foaling, and veterinary procedures. Mares with defective vulval conformation can suck air and bacteria into the vagina, which can develop into endometritis.2
The uterus responds to bacteria invading the reproductive tract with a rapid influx of neutrophils. Normally these neutrophils kill the bacteria rapidly, and the inflammatory byproducts are mechanically removed and the endometritis resolves itself (returns to normal). Failure to resolve this inflammation results in the “susceptible” mare.2,3
A diagnosis of endometritis can be made by collection of concurrent endometrial swab and smear samples during early estrus for bacteriological culture and cytological examination, respectively. This allows time for resolution prior to breeding, and maximizes the chances of pregnancy. The ideal technique should ensure that the swab enters the uterus and collects bacteria from only the uterine lumen. It is important to ensure that the method of swabbing does not introduce bacteria into a previously normal uterus.3
Enrofloxacin 150 MG/ML Suspension for horses
Enrofloxacin is a veterinary oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is effective against a variety of pathogens, although it is not effective against anaerobes. The literature holds that its use should be avoided in young, growing animals because of the potential negative impact on cartilage development.
While there had been reluctance among horse owners in using compounded enrofloxacin to combat endometritis, in recent years, the success of this and other compounded medications have led to widespread acceptance among horse owners and veterinarians, with researchers agreeing that enrofloxacin suspensions are useful in the treatment of bacterial endometritis cases.3
The oral formulation of enrofloxacin is FDA approved for use in dogs and cats for the management of bacterial infections susceptible to enrofloxacin. Enrofloxacin is also FDA approved for use in cattle (excluding dairy cattle and veal calves) and pigs. Adverse effects include GI distress, CNS stimulation, crystalluria, or hypersensitivity. Administration to dogs and cats should be PO, ideally on an empty stomach (unless vomiting occurs).4 Extra-label use of enrofloxacin is prohibited in food animals.
Where to buy Enrofloxacin 150 MG/ML Suspension
Enrofloxacin 150 MG/ML Suspension is available in the U.S. through several pharmaceutical manufacturers and through veterinary custom compounding companies. Enrofloxacin 150 MG/ML Suspension by NexGen Pharmaceuticals is extremely effective in the treatment of bacterial endometritis in mares.
FOR RX ONLY: A valid prescription from a licensed veterinarian is required for dispensing this medication.
1Lesté-Lasserre, C. Endometritis in Horses Explained. In: The Horse, Nov 1, 2010. https://thehorse.com/150681/endometritis-in-horses-explained/
2Pycock, J., DVM. Endometritis Classifications and Treatment. In: The Horse, Apr 1, 1999. https://thehorse.com/14445/endometritis-classifications-and-treatment/
3Beckstett, A. Compounded Enrofloxacin: Safe and Effective for Use in Mares. In The Horse, Apr 5, 2015. https://thehorse.com/111731/compounded-enrofloxacin-safe-and-effective-for-use-in-mares/
4Plumb’s Veterinary Drugs.