Yohimbine HCl 20 mg/mL, Injectable Solution, 30mL
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Various antagonists are used in modern veterinary anesthesia. These drugs provide efficient tools to facilitate better control of pharmacological effects and side effects of drugs routinely used in sedation and anesthesia.1 Agonists are drug that bind to a cell’s receptor, producing a desired response; antagonists are drugs that bind to the receptor either on the primary site, or on another site, which stops the receptor from producing a response. The difference between these two drug types is that one simulates the intended reaction, where as an antagonist binds to the receptor and slows or stops the response.
Yohimbine (yohimbine HCl) is an α2-adrenergic antagonist that is used to reverse xylazine, an α2-adrenergic agonist that is widely used for sedation, anesthesia, muscle relaxation and analgesia in veterinary medicine. Yohimbine is also used to antagonize other α2-adrenergic agonist drugs. Yohimbine is believed to penetrate the CNS very readily; when used to reverse the effects of xylazine, onset of action is usually within 3 minutes.
As a single drug, yohimbine increases heart rate, blood pressure, causes CNS stimulation and antidiuresis, and has hyperinsulinemic effects. A study in cats found that yohimbine can antagonize xylazine- and medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats. It can increase borborygmi and GI sounds in horses and act as an antiemetic in cats.2
One study in horses that received detomidine 0.03 mg/kg IV followed 15 minutes later by yohimbine 0.2 mg/kg IV found that yohimbine rapidly reversed the sedative effects of detomidine, effectively returned heart rate and the percent of atrio-ventricular conduction disturbances to pre-detomidine values, and effectively reduced detomidine-induced hyperglycemia.2
Yohimbine is contraindicated in patients that are hypersensitive to it and is contraindicated in patients with renal disease. Yohimbine should be used cautiously in patients with seizure disorders. When used to reverse the effects xylazine, normal pain perception may result. Prolonged withdrawal periods for horses in athletic events may be necessary.2
Yohimbine may cause transient apprehension or CNS excitement, muscle tremors, hypertension, tachycardia, salivation, increased respiratory rates, and hyperemic mucous membranes. Adverse effects appear to be more probable in small animals and horses.2
Where to buy Yohimbine
Yohimbine is available in the U.S. through pharmaceutical manufacturers and through veterinary custom compounding companies. YOHIMBINE HCL 20 MG/ML INJECTABLE SOLUTION, 30ML by NexGen Pharmaceuticals is indicated for the reversal of xylazine and other α2-adrenergic agonists.
This product carries several potential drug interactions. Please consult your veterinarian prior to beginning any treatment regimen.
FOR RX ONLY: A valid prescription from a licensed veterinarian is required for dispensing this medication.
1Lauven P.M., Calaminus, et. al. Antagonisten in der Anästhesie [Antagonists in anesthesia]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1995 Oct;30(6):331-6. German. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-996505. PMID: 8541433.
2Plumb’s Veterinary Drugs.