Mineral Supplement (Systemic)
- The most soluble form of calcium
- Highest elemental calcium in ionic form
- Non - irritant form of calcium Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)
- Helps in mobilization & absorption of calcium
- Maintains circulating levels of calcium in blood
- Maintains neuromuscular contractibility
- Maintains nerve fibers & muscle tissues
- Aids in erythropoiesis2
Calcium Levulinate helps in the prevention and treatment of a number of equine issues including hypocalcaemia, debility, weakness, to improve health, productivity and milk yield.
The relatively new calcium levulinate is produced from a direct reaction between L- or levulinic acid levulose and calcium hydroxide. The resultant calcium levulinate formulation, when used as a calcium supplement, possesses a high calcium content that is observed to be 14.8% higher than the content typically found in calcium lactate. This formulation is considered a low molecular weight organic calcium ion type that is easily absorbed through the intestinal wall. This new application of calcium is intended for use as a food fortifier, to fortify foods like sauces, condiments, beer, beverages, soft drinks, milk and milk products, soy milk and soy products with calcium nutrition. Calcium levulinate can be used alone, or with calcium lactate, calcium chloride, and other compounds, either for pharmaceutical tablets, capsules, or injections preparation.2
Calcium Levulinate is commonly used to treat conditions related to calcium deficiencies in horses.
Calcium is involved substantially in the formation of the bones, the teeth, the nerves, the muscles, and the blood coagulation. 99% of the total body calcium is found in the bones. In the body, parathyroid hormones, vitamin D (calcitriol) and clacitonin are rseponsible for the maintenance of the calcium homeostasis. Calcium can stimulate gastric acid secretion, corticosteroid and (in some cases) insulin production. Calcium carbonate acts as an antacid and binds phosphates in the gut. Other calcium salts merely serve as calcium suppliers.1
General calcium absorption occurs primarily in the duodenum by an active transcellular and saturable system, which is stimulated and regulated by 1,25(OH)2D,25 and through a passive and vitamin D-independent paracellular transport in the jejunum and ileum, and even in the colon - where absorption is only about 4% even when the intake is high. Ultimately, calcium absorption depends mainly on the amount of intake - in general, absorption increases at lower intakes and decreases at high intakes.
Calcium levulinate is produced from a direct reaction between L- or levulinic acid levulose and calcium hydroxide. The resultant calcium levulinate formulation, when used as a calcium supplement, possesses a high calcium content that is observed to be 14.8% higher than the content typically found in calcium lactate. Moreover, this formulation also demonstrates a high solubility of more than 30% at 25℃. Furthermore, the calcium levulinate is believed to be non-toxic and non-allergic, making it especially suitable for injection or infusion administrations.
Much like most calcium supplements, once calcium levulinate dissociates in the body after administration, absorption of the supplemental calcium ions across the intestinal wall serves to enhance calcium stores in the body.3
Levulinic acid (LA) is a commonly used chemical with one carbonyl group, one carboxyl group, and alpha-H comprised in its inner structure, which belongs to short-chain and non-volatile fatty acids.4 The carbon-oxygen double bond from LA's carbonyl group possesses a strong polarity, where the oxygen atom has a stronger electron attracting ability compared to the carbon atom, such that the pi electron will ultimately transfer into the greater electronegative oxygen, therefore resulting in the formation of a positive charge center in the carbon atom.4 The electrophilic center of the carbon atom subsequently plays a critical role when the carbonyl group performs chemical reactions.4 Owing to the relatively strong electron receptor effect of the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group, LA has higher dissociation constants than a common saturated acid, which allows it to possess a stronger corresponding acidity. Furthermore, LA can be isomerized into the enol-isomer, owing to the presence of the carbonyl group. The chemical structure of LA consequently has several highly active sites, which facilitates it being used as a chemical platform for preparing many other chemical products. For example, the special structure of LA allows various kinds of products to be generated by way of esterification, halogenation, hydrogenation, oxy-dehydrogenation, and/or condensation, among many other methods.4
Contraindications / Precautions:
Calcium levulinate is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity. It should be used with caution in patients with megaloblastic anemias due to reduced cobalamin levels as folinic acid therapy may mask the associated signs.
Use with extreme caution in patients receiving systemic fluorouracil.
Because of its calcium content, large IV doses should be given slowly and not as a bolus.3
Adverse effects have not been noted when calcium levulinate has been used in animals. In humans, GI effects can be seen when the drug is given orally and, rarely, seizures and hypersensitivity reactions have occurred. Pyrexia may occur after parenteral administration.1
Overdosage with calcium resulting in excessively high levels of calcium in the blood known as hypercalcemia can cause renal insufficiency, vascular and soft tissue calcification, hypercalciuria, and kidney stones.2
The following drug interactions have either been reported or are theoretical in humans or animals receiving calcium levulinate and may be of significance in veterinary patients.
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5 - The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium levulinate is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 - The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium levulinate is combined with 1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2.
Acebutolol - The therapeutic efficacy of Acebutolol can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium levulinate.
Acetyldigitoxin - Calcium levulinate may increase the arrhythmogenic and cardiotoxic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.
Acetyldigoxin - Calcium levulinate may increase the arrhythmogenic and cardiotoxic activities of Acetyldigoxin.
Agmatine - The therapeutic efficacy of Agmatine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium levulinate.
Alendronic acid - The serum concentration of Alendronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Calcium levulinate.
Alfacalcidol - The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium levulinate is combined with Alfacalcidol.
Alprenolol - The therapeutic efficacy of Alprenolol can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium levulinate.
Amiodarone - The therapeutic efficacy of Amiodarone can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium levulinate.3
Horses: 0.1 – 0.3 mg/kg PO every 24 hours.
4Lyu, Gaojin & Lou, Rui & Wu, Shubin. Advances in the Catalytic Production of Valuable Levulinic Acid Derivatives (2013). 1230 ftp.